## Handling Spectral Inversion in Baseband Processing

The problem of "spectral inversion" comes up fairly frequently in the context of signal processing for communication systems. In short, "spectral inversion" is the reversal of the orientation of the signal bandwidth with respect to the carrier frequency. Rick Lyons' article on "Spectral Flipping" at http://www.dsprelated.com/showarticle/37.php discusses methods of handling the inversion (as shown in Figure 1a and 1b) at the signal center frequency. Since most communication systems process...

## Computing Chebyshev Window Sequences

Chebyshev windows (also called Dolph-Chebyshev, or Tchebyschev windows), have several useful properties. Those windows, unlike the fixed Hanning, Hamming, or Blackman window functions, have adjustable sidelobe levels. For a given user-defined sidelobe level and window sequence length, Chebyshev windows yield the most narrow mainlobe compared to any fixed window functions.

However, for some reason, detailed descriptions of how to compute Chebyshev window sequences are not readily available...

## Resolving 'Can't initialize target CPU' on TI C6000 DSPs - Part 2

Configuration

The previous article discussed CCS configuration. The prerequisite for the following discussion is a valid CCS configuration file. All references will be for CCS 3.3, but they may be used or adapted to other versions of CCS. From the previous discussion, we know that the configuration file is located at 'C:\CCStudio_v3.3\cc\bin\brddat\ccBrd0.dat'.

XDS510 Emulators

Initial discussion will address only XDS510 class emulators that support TI drivers and utilities. This will...

## Spectral Flipping Around Signal Center Frequency

Most of us are familiar with the process of flipping the spectrum (spectral inversion) of a real signal by multiplying that signal's time samples by (-1)n. In that process the center of spectral rotation is fs/4, where fs is the signal's sample rate in Hz. In this blog we discuss a different kind of spectral flipping process.

Consider the situation where we need to flip the X(f) spectrum in Figure 1(a) to obtain the desired Y(f) spectrum shown in Figure 1(b). Notice that the center of...

## A Differentiator With a Difference

Some time ago I was studying various digital differentiating networks, i.e., networks that approximate the process of taking the derivative of a discrete time-domain sequence. By "studying" I mean that I was experimenting with various differentiating filter coefficients, and I discovered a computationally-efficient digital differentiator. A differentiator that, for low fequency signals, has the power of George Foreman's right hand! Before I describe this differentiator, let's review a few...

## A brief look at multipath radio channels

Summary: Discussion of multipath propagation and fading in radio links

Radio channels, their effects on communications links and how to model them are a popular topic on comp.dsp. Unfortunately, for many of us there is little or no opportunity to get any "hands-on" experience with radio-related issues, because the required RF measurement equipment is not that easily available.This article gives a very simple example of a radio link that shows multipath propagation and...

## Delay estimation by FFT

Given x=sig(t) and y=ref(t), returns [c, ref(t+delta), delta)] = fitSignal(y, x);:Estimates and corrects delay and scaling factor between two signals Code snippetThis article relates to the Matlab / Octave code snippet: Delay estimation with subsample resolution It explains the algorithm and the design decisions behind it.

IntroductionThere are many DSP-related problems, where an unknown timing between two signals needs to be determined and corrected, for example, radar, sonar,...

## Instant CIC

Summary:

A floating point model for a CIC decimator, including the frequency response.

Description:

A CIC filter relies on a peculiarity of its fixed-point implementation: Normal operation involves repeated internal overflows that have no effect to the output signal, as they cancel in the following stage.

One way to put it intuitively is that only the speed (and rate of change) of every little "wheel" in the clockworks carries information, but its absolute position is...

## Simultaneously Computing a Forward FFT and an Inverse FFT Using a Single FFT

Most of us are familiar with the processes of using a single N-point complex FFT to: (1) perform a 2N-point FFT on real data, and (2) perform two independent N-point FFTs on real data [1–5]. In case it's of interest to someone out there, this blog gives the algorithm for simultaneously computing a forward FFT and an inverse FFT using a single radix-2 FFT.

Our algorithm is depicted by the seven steps, S1 through S7, shown in Figure 1. In that figure, we compute the x(n) inverse FFT of...

## Multiplying Two Binary Numbers

I just encountered what I think is an interesting technique for multiplying two integer numbers. Perhaps some of the readers here will also find it interesting.

Here's the technique: assume we want to multiply 18 times 17. We start by writing 18 and 17, side-by-side in column A and column B, as shown at the top of Figure 1. Next we divide the 18 at the top of column A by two, retaining only the integer part of the division, and double the 17 at the top of column B. The results of those two...

## How Not to Reduce DFT Leakage

This blog describes a technique to reduce the effects of spectral leakage when using the discrete Fourier transform (DFT).

In late April 2012 there was a thread on the comp.dsp newsgroup discussing ways to reduce the spectral leakage problem encountered when using the DFT. One post in that thread caught my eye [1]. That post referred to a website presenting a paper describing a DFT leakage method that I'd never heard of before [2]. (Of course, not that I've heard...

## Digging into an Audio Signal and the DSP Process Pipeline

In this post, I'll look at the benefits of using multiple perspectives when handling signals.A Pre-existing Audio FileLet's say we have an audio file of interest. Let's load it into Audacity and zoom in a little (using View → Zoom → Zoom In, multiple times). The figure illustrates the audio signal: just a basic single-tone signal.

By continuing to zoom into the signal, we eventually get to the point of seeing individual samples as illustrated below. Notice that I've marked one...

## Unit Testing for Embedded Algorithms

Happy Holidays! For my premier article, I am writing about my favorite technique to use when designing and developing software- unit testing. Unit testing is a best practice when designing software. It allows the designer to verify the behavior of the software units before the entire system is complete, and it facilitates the change and growth of the software system because the developer can verify that the changes will not affect the behavior of other parts of the system. I have used...

## A Complex Variable Detective Story – A Disconnect Between Theory and Implementation

Recently I was in the middle of a pencil-and-paper analysis of a digital 5-tap FIR filter having complex-valued coefficients and I encountered a surprising and thought-provoking problem. So that you can avoid the algebra difficulty I encountered, please read on.

A Surprising Algebra Puzzle

I wanted to derive the H(ω) equation for the frequency response of my FIR digital filter whose complex coefficients were h0, h1, h2, h3, and h4. I could then test the validity of my H(ω)...

## Unit Testing for Embedded Algorithms

Happy Holidays! For my premier article, I am writing about my favorite technique to use when designing and developing software- unit testing. Unit testing is a best practice when designing software. It allows the designer to verify the behavior of the software units before the entire system is complete, and it facilitates the change and growth of the software system because the developer can verify that the changes will not affect the behavior of other parts of the system. I have used...

## The Nature of Circles

What do you mean?When calculating the mean of a list of numbers, the obvious approach is to sum them and divide by how many there are.

Suppose I give you a list of two numbers:

- 0
- 359

What is their mean? The obvious answer is 179.5.

If I told you that the numbers were compass bearings in degrees, what would your answer be then? Does 179.5 seem correct?

In the case of compass bearings, 0 is the same direction as 360. When talking about angles in the DSP world, we often talk about...

## Exact Near Instantaneous Frequency Formulas Best at Zero Crossings

IntroductionThis is an article that is the last of my digression from trying to give a better understanding of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). It is along the lines of the last two.

In those articles, I presented exact formulas for calculating the frequency of a pure tone signal as instantaneously as possible in the time domain. Although the formulas work for both real and complex signals (something that does not happen with frequency domain formulas), for real signals they...

## Digging into an Audio Signal and the DSP Process Pipeline

In this post, I'll look at the benefits of using multiple perspectives when handling signals.A Pre-existing Audio FileLet's say we have an audio file of interest. Let's load it into Audacity and zoom in a little (using View → Zoom → Zoom In, multiple times). The figure illustrates the audio signal: just a basic single-tone signal.

By continuing to zoom into the signal, we eventually get to the point of seeing individual samples as illustrated below. Notice that I've marked one...

## Fibonacci trick

I'm working on a video, tying the Fibonacci sequence into the general subject of difference equations.

Here's a fun trick: take any two consecutive numbers in the Fibonacci sequence, say 34 and 55. Now negate one and use them as the seed for the Fibonacci sequence, larger magnitude first, i.e.

$-55, 34, \cdots$

Carry it out, and you'll eventually get the Fibonacci sequence, or it's negative:

$-55, 34, -21, 13, -8, 5, -3, 2, -1, 1, 0, 1, 1 \cdots$

This is NOT a general property of difference...

## Exact Near Instantaneous Frequency Formulas Best at Peaks (Part 2)

IntroductionThis is an article that is a continuation of a digression from trying to give a better understanding of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). It is recommended that my previous article "Exact Near Instantaneous Frequency Formulas Best at Peaks (Part 1)"[1] be read first as many sections of this article are directly dependent upon it.

A second family of formulas for calculating the frequency of a single pure tone in a short interval in the time domain is presented. It...

## Pentagon Construction Using Complex Numbers

A method for constructing a pentagon using a straight edge and a compass is deduced from the complex values of the Fifth Roots of Unity. Analytic values for the points are also derived.